1.What is a meta-analysis? A way of combining data from many different individual research studies.
2.Systematic review?  A summary. Critical assessment of all research studies that address an issue
3.Randomized Control Trial? randomly assign participant into two groups
4.Cohort study? A group of patients with a specific condition gets followed over time
5.Case report? A report on a simple patient
6.Cross-sectional study? observation of a population at a single point in time (DM2 ulcers between 1970-1980)


Disease Spread

1.Endemic exists permanently in a particular region or population.
2.Epidemic An outbreak of disease that attacks many peoples at about the same time and may spread
3.Pandemic When an epidemic spreads throughout the world
4.Infectious disease Diseases that you can catch. They are communicable
5.Malaria is a constant worry in parts of Africa. What type of spread is this?  Endemic
6.Examples of infectious disease?
  • colds,
  • influenza,
  • measles,
  • mumps,
  • tuberculosis,
  • pneumonia,
  • smallpox
7.Ways disease spread?
  • People (sneeze, kiss)
  • animals (flea, rats)
  • food
  • water
8.Spanish flu, which affected multiple countries, what is that termed?  pandemic



1.Define bias deviation from truth
2.Control group?  group without disease
3.Double-blind method? both subject and investigator is unaware
4.Empirical research study on direct observation from records, interview, or actual practice
5.Qualitative? observation, verbal, meanings, terms
6.Quantitative? numerical analysis
7.randomized trial? involves one test and one control treatment
8.retrospective studies? some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
9.sensitivity?  proportion of true positives
10.specificity? probability of correctly determine absence of condition
11.What is a re-tester reliability?  Repeating the entire experiment gives the same final result
12.Describe a cohort study. Observe large groups of individuals, recording their exposure to certain risk factors to find clues as to the possible causes of disease (large group over a long period of time)
13.Surgeon whats to see the risks in performing a BKA on the LEFT leg with a previous TMA on the right, what study should he look at? a cohort study